“Pleats Please” 是我認爲我對設計最有價值的貢獻-三宅一生
“Pleats Please is what I consider my most valuable contribute to design.”
三宅一生的設計哲學可以從1969年五月的巴黎學運開始談起．三宅一生在1965年畢業於日本的Tama藝術大學後便進入巴黎的Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne的高級訂製服裝學校，並且在Guy Laroche跟Givenchy實習．在他1969年前往紐約前，這段在巴黎的日子對他來說相當重要．他在巴黎目睹了叛逆、自由的氣氛，想要挑戰傳統、一成不變．學運期間，來自世界各地的人匯聚在巴黎並且不受拘束的表現自己．時尚，作為法國社會的重要領域，不可避免的受到這種自由的氣息感染．在時尚產業工作的人們也開始重新思考長久以來的時尚體系．三宅一生從這種氣氛中解脫了高級訂製服的傳統、窠臼，了解到他的設計應該屬於每個人，“像牛仔褲或是T恤”一樣被一般大眾穿著．
Issey Miyake’s design philosophy is emerged out from the student riots in Paris of May 1968. After graduating from Tama Art University in 1965, Miyake was admitted to an haute couture school in Paris- Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne and worked as an apprentice at Guy Laroche and Givenchy. The time he stayed in Paris before he left for New York in 1969 was critical to his design philosophy. During his stay in Paris, he thrived on the rebellious, liberal atmosphere that sought to challenge conventionality and conformity. (Issey, 1999) People from all around the world invaded the city and expressed themselves freely. Fashion, as an important field in French society, inevitably perceived the sense of longing for freedom and people working in the fashion industry began to rethink the fashion system which had been built for a long time. He then was set free from the traditional constraints and the conventional rules of etiquette of haute couture, realising that his design should easily be worn by anyone, “like jeans or T-shirts.” (Issey, 1999, p18)
ARTFORUM cover Feb1982
Before an exhibition titled ‘A-ŪN’ in 1988, Issey Miyake was dedicated to responding to fundamental questions about the nature of clothing, such as the relationship between clothes and life, the movement of body and garments. He had done several collaborations with artists from different fields to show his concerns, philosophy and answer the questions. Also, due to his nationality mixed with his western experiences, he sought a balance of definition of fashion between the East and the West. At that time, European’s native costume as well as system of modern society were adopted by the whole world. He understood that if he want to strike a balance between East and West, he could neither use western techniques, such as cutting and sewing which make the form of the garment like a shell similar to the shape of the body, nor adopt eastern methods which set the garment or fabric away from body, like kimono. (Issey, 1978, p55) He knew that he had to start from the core concept of essential space, the inconsistency between the body and the fabric.
Until he exhibited all his work at ‘A-ŪN’ in 1988, he sensed that the exhibition was a summary of his research into design and materials. He felt that he had achieved everything he could, so he started to think about what was ahead. Then he spotted a scarf which was folded and pleated at an angle, believing that it was a new form of garment.(Issey, 2012, p34)
事實上，在服裝史中，壓褶已經被運用超過千年了．從歷史的角度來看，埃及人的壓褶裙以及希臘人的罩袍都是經典的例子；從民族服飾的角度來看，蘇格蘭裙的百褶效果在討論男性穿裙時是不可避免的．20世紀初期的Fortuny發展出獨特的壓褶技法，甚至還替自己發明的壓褶機申請專利．瑪麗蓮夢露穿著白色散褶裙在紐約地鐵氣口的照片更是經典中的經典．縱使壓褶不是一個嶄新的技法，三宅一生把壓褶提升到一個新的境界，或著更精確的是把壓褶帶到每個人的生活裡．他認為 ‘Pleats Please’不僅僅是個商業化的產品，更是一個實踐他設計哲學的機會．
Actually, in fashion history, pleats have been used for thousands of years. From a historical perspective, Egyptian pharaohs’s loincloth and greek’s chiton are well known by the world; in terms of ethnic costume, Scottish kilts are wildly discussed when it comes to the issue of men in skirts. (Edelkoort, 2012, pp. 21) At the beginning of 20th century, Mario Fortuny, worked as a painter, sculptor and inventor, and took a patent of his new pleating technology in his era. Subsequently, Marilyn Monroe’s white sun ray pleat dress standing above the air outlet of New York subway became an iconic image. Pleating is not a new fabric manipulation technique. However, when Issey Miyake encountered this manipulation, he brought the pleating to another level, or to be specific, brought it down to everyone’s daily life. He views ‘Pleats Please’ as a chance to practice his design philosophy rather than merely produce a commercial product.
“Pleated dresses invoke Fortuny’s glorious designs from the early 20th century, but I was not interested in the style of haute couture that required maintenance and careful handling that he had created. I wasn’t interested in mastering craftsmanship, but in creating clothes based upon theories of modern technology and engineering. I want to delve into the potential, not of fashion, but of clothing as a product.” said Issey Miyake. (Issey, 2012, pp. 34)
相較於Fortuny，三宅一生與舞者合作，而他想達成的是“創造出每個人都能穿的服裝” Fortuny的洋裝是設計給在不穿束胸的室內場合和敢在室外穿的前衛女士，例如：Isadora Duncan．雖然這些先驅者的穿著解放了女性的自我身體意識，但這種服裝仍屬於上流階層的時尚，排除了時尚圈以外的人．三宅一生與法蘭克福舞團William Forsythe的合作為時尚開啟了新的態度．當芭蕾舞者試穿Pleats Please時，他們的行為讓三宅一生大為吃驚．當他們的身體一滑進服裝時，他們就開始舞動甚至換穿另一性別的服裝，忽略三宅一生的指示．三宅一生開始了解，他的設計不僅僅是為了貴族或著時尚的人，他成功地把時尚帶進了每個人的生活中．
In contrast to Fortuny, Issey collaborated with dancers, and what he really wants to achieve is “ to create clothes that anyone could wear.”(Issey, 1999, pp.18) Fortuny’s dress was designed for wearing around the house without corset and avant-garde ladies, such as Isadora Duncan, began to wear the garment outside the house. Although those pioneers’ behaviour freed the self-awareness of women’s body, the garments still belonged to high-end fashion and were exclusive to the fashion outsider. Issey Miyake’s collaboration with William Forsythe’s Frankfurt Ballet Company built up a new attitude toward fashion. When the ballerinas tried on ‘Pleats Please’, their actions astonished Issey Miyake. For the first time they slipped into the costumes, they began to move and even tried on the opposite gender’s dress, neglecting Issey’s instructions. (Issey, 2012, pp.38) Issey Miyake then started to understand his design is not for noble or fashion people only, he succeeded in trickling fashion down to everyone.
PLEATS PLEASE first release in 1993 at Paris Fashion Week
“我花了好多年的時間在巴黎設計時裝，但我的感覺是除了製作服裝給精英階層外，應該要有另一種風格是適合更廣泛的女性顧客，一種不被特定年紀或職業且被當代美學啟發的風格；同時，這種服裝是具有功能性的、超越一時的潮流”．在他的設計生涯中，我們可以追溯到1968年，他就有幫普羅大眾設計衣服的打算，但直到他在1993年發表 ‘Pleats Please’ 前他與芭蕾舞者的合作，他才感覺到他的夢想成真了．
“I spent many years working on collections in Paris, and my feeling was that, in addition to the clothes reserved for an elite, there should be another clothing style aimed at a wider female audience, a style that would not be restricted to a particular age or profession, and which would be inspired by current aesthetics. At the same time it would be functional and go beyond the fads and trends of the moment.” (Issey, 1999, pp. 20) During his design career, we can trace back that he has had the notion of creating garments for everyone since 1968, but not until he collaborated with ballerinas before he launch of ‘Pleats Please’ in 1993, was his dream fulfilled.
‘Pleats Please’ 對三宅一生而言，是一趟研究旅程，花費他好幾年的時間來完成產品．不像Fortuny，三宅一生發現聚酯纖維圍巾讓他從人造纖維開始．透過這個材料，他看到一個嶄新的可能性．然而三宅一生的設計團隊當時並不熟悉人造纖維．Makiko Minagawa，這位三宅設計團隊中的首席織品設計師，認為要進入人造纖維的領域是相當大的挑戰．當時現有的人造纖維相當適合作為小條的圍巾，而且聚酯纖維能夠被永久壓褶，皺摺在洗滌後仍能保持原樣．然而，當要用這種材料來製作整件服裝時，布量增加到三倍或著更多，導致服裝變得相當厚重，不適合穿著．雖然用聚酯纖維製作壓褶圍巾的三倍布量所需的花費遠比純棉或著其他天然纖維合理許多，但當用聚酯纖維來製作整件服裝時，成本相較於一般服裝還是相當高．研究過程中，三宅一生還強調，新的服裝必須是非常的輕，方便穿著、攜帶、具有功能性並且相當強韌．
‘Pleats Please’ is a research journey for Issey Miyake, taking him years to mature the products. Unlike Fortuny, Issey discovered the polyester scarf which made him begin with synthetic fibre. He can see the brand new possibilities through the new material. However, the Issey Miyake Deisgn Team was not familiar with the synthetics material. Makiko Minagawa, the leading textile designer of Issey Miyake Design Team, found it a huge challenge to step into a whole new world. The existent synthetic fibre was suitable for making small scarves, and polyester fibre can be pleated permanently and easy to maintain the shape after washing. However when it came to a whole garment, the volume of the fabric increased three times or even more, and the piece became very heavy and thick which was not suitable for wear. Although, polyester is far cheaper than cotton or other natural fibres, the cost of a scarf, which needs fabric three times more than normal, may stay reasonable. However, when this applies to a whole garment it is extremely expensive. (Issey, 2012, pp. 61) Also, following Issey’s concept, the new garments must be lightweight, easy to wear, portable, functional and sturdy.
Minagawa 開始把材料實驗延伸到 ‘內裡材料’．在當時，製作內裡以及外衣的材料仍舊有很明顯的區別．她秘密地進行研究以及實驗將內裡材料運用在外衣的可能性．最後，她提出了Toray公司製作的經編緞紋織物（Tricot）．這塊料子用在內裡，它非常的輕、耐用且價錢相當合理．紗線在這個緞紋組織中循著對角線紡織，而且能夠承受壓褶過程中的高溫且讓摺痕永久保存．
Minagawa started to reach out to ‘apparel materials’. At that time, there was a clear distinction between materials for lining and for garments. She secretively did her research and experimented the possibilities to apply apparel materials to outerwear. She eventually came up with a type of knit fabric called tricot with an atlas structure made by Toray. The fabric used for lining is extremely light, durable and reasonably priced. The threads in this atlas structure are threaded diagonally, and they can take the heat of the pleating process and this makes the pleats long-lasting. (Issey, 2012, pp.68)
另一個另類的實驗是‘反轉過程’，而這也是Pleats Please最主要的創新之處．傳統上，製作壓褶服裝通常是先把布料送去壓褶工坊，接著剪裁布料並縫製成壓褶服裝．Pleats Please取而代之的是設計團隊先製作好整件服裝然後將整件服裝送進壓褶機進行壓褶．這個反轉製作流程的手法完全改變了以前的生產流程，甚至需要完全不同的機器來進行製作．設計團隊起初尋找手工壓褶工坊進行實驗．Ploytex Industry公司的工程師Kiyoshi Takahashi回憶道三宅一生的工法完全挑戰他們對壓褶的認知且已經記不得在生產出第一件Pleats Please 產品前，他們弄壞了多少台機器．
Another heretical experiment is the inversion process which is a major innovative treatment of Pleats Please. Instead of standard pleating process, in which fabric is first pleated then cut and sewn, the design team created the garment first and then folded and pleated it. This inverse process completely changed the production process which needed different machines to work together. At the primary stage, they sought hand pleating studio to help them experiment. An engineer, Kiyoshi Takahashi, from Ploytex Industry Co., Ltd., recollected that Miyake’s method totally defied the common sense and he could not remember how many machines they broke before the first revolutionised ‘Pleats Please’ product. (Issey, 2012, pp.82-83)
From 16th March until 13th June 2016 you can visit ‘MIYAKE ISSEY EXHIBITION: The Work of Mikyake Issey’ at The National Art Centre, Tokyo. The exhibition will showcase works from the 1970s to the present, and is the largest Miyake retrospective to date. Alongside the exhibition is a programme of talks and workshops. Visit the official website for more information.