© Tsai-Chun Huang, 2020

Mariano Fortuny

March 13, 2016

Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo 出生於1871年西班牙的Granada,他的父親在他三歲的時候過世,隨後Fortuny便跟著母親移居巴黎,並且開始他對於藝術的學習.18歲時,全家前往威尼斯旅行,認為這個城市是藝術的中心便從1890年後永久定居在威尼斯.從此之後,Fortuny雖然在世界各地都有開店,但他創作的中心仍舊以威尼斯為主.他在1897年認識了Henriette Negrin,之後成為他的妻子.Harriette本身在巴黎時就是訂製服的師傅,因此對於Fortuny來說是相當大的助力,在日後Fortuny奔波世界各地拓展事業時,Henriette則在工坊裡處理技術上的問題.

 

Mariano Fortuny was born in 1871 in Granada, Spain. When Fortuny was 3 years old, his father died. His mother moved with him to Paris, where he soon started to take an interest in art. When he was 18, a family trip to Venice made such an impression on the Fortuny family that they decided to move to what they considered the centre of the art world. (In later life, even once he had opened shops around the world, Venice was always his creative centre.) In 1897 he married Henriette Negrin. She was not only his model and muse but also a couturier. Henriette took care of everything in the workshop as Fortuny expanded his ventures across the globe.

 

                                                                               Mariano Fortuny Y Madrazo  

                                                                           http://fortuny.com/History.aspx

                                                                            Henriette Negrin 

                                                                http://fortuny.com/History.aspx

 

1922年與美國設計師,Elise Lee McNeill,一同成立公司,但McNeill接著轉手Countess Gozzi,Fortuny在Island La Guidecca的工作室便由他的太太接手.Fortuny 1949年過世後,便沒有再生產服裝.Countess Gozzi則持續推廣Fortuny的作品直到過世.1998年後,事業便由Countess Gozzi的律師Maged Riad接手,21世紀後,Maged Riad的孩子成為在紐約公司的負責人,而Riad的兄弟則成為La Guidecca工坊的創意總監.

 

Mariano Fortuny set up his brand with an American interior designer, Elise Lee McNeill, and later with Countess Gozzi. His wife Henriette took care of his studio on the island of La Giudecca. After his death in 1949, no more garments were produced, but Countess Gozzi still promoted Fortuny’s work until she died in <year>.  The rights were sold to lawyer Maged Riad on her death. In the 21st century, Riad’s children have become the representatives of the firm in New York and his brother became director of workshop on the island of La Giudecca.

 

Fortuny受劇場以及父母收藏的古董織品中獲得許多啟發.Fortuny 從1906年開始在威尼斯的工作室Palazzo Orfei實驗他的織品印花.鑽研文藝復興時期、北非伊斯蘭的圖案研究、利用新的技法,例如雕版印刷(block print), 網版印刷(screen print),來創作,並利用相當高級的材料像是絲絨或是100%蠶絲作為布底.

 

Fortuny was influenced by theatre arts and inspired by his parents’ collections of antique textiles, he began printing his own textile designs from 1906 in Palazzo Orfei which was his studio in Venice. He was interested in patterns from the Renaissance and Islamic art. Using new techniques, such as block and screen print, to create new effects, he always used luxurious fabrics such as pure silk or velvet as the printing base. 

 

 

                                                                         Charioteer of Delphi

                                                 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charioteer_of_Delphi

 

Fortuny的劇場經驗對他而言是相當重要的啟蒙.他於1907年受邀設計舞台劇燈光,過程中他觀察古希臘的雕像,而雕像上的服裝皺摺成為他日後創造出壓褶衣服的靈感來源.同年他設計Knossos Scarf給當時知名的芭蕾舞者Isadora Duncan.Isadora Duncan屏棄陳舊的芭蕾舞形式,認為新時代需要有新的芭蕾舞,而新形式芭蕾舞需要新形式的服裝.因此Duncan經常在他的舞作中穿著Fortuny的服裝,替Fortuny做了最好的宣傳.

 

Fortuny was invited to design a new lighting system, which created a range of special effects for the theatre. This was very influential on his development. During the research, he observed statues from Ancient Greece and became interested in the drapery, particularly the pleats. This inspired him to create pleated garments later on. He designed a scarf called ‘Knossos’ for pioneering dancer Isadora Duncan. Duncan believed that she needed a unique form of costume in order to showcase the new form of ballet. She danced in Fortuny’s designs and became one of the best champions of his work.

 

                                                                                  Knossos 

                                                                            http://fortuny.com/History.aspx

 

當Duncan穿著Delphos時,她的一點小小、輕微的動作就能讓服裝顫抖,在服裝上產生優雅變化.

這件衣服被當時的劇服設計師Bakst看到,他在1909年的Ballet Russes設計中把Fortuny給他的靈感帶進去.1911年重新設計時,這齣Ballet Russes無論是舞台還是劇服都有濃濃的Fortuny風格.

 

When Duncan wore the ‘Delphos’ dress, the slightest movement would cause the garment to tremble, resulting in an elegant rippling effect.

 

                                                            Isadora Duncan(中) 與先生及小孩 

          http://www.dollhousebettie.com/index.php?option=com_myblog&Itemid=0&lang=en&show=306

 

Fortuny 不僅研究褶子如何與人體互動,他更研究壓褶的機器.從1909年開始他便替自己發明的壓褶機器申請專利.他利用自行設計的機器來壓出褶子.Fortuny知名的褶布方式截至目前為止都被認為是時尚史中的一個謎.


In addition to studying how the pleated fabric interacted with the body, Fortuny researched how to build his own pleating machine. He patented his invention in 1909 and he pleated fabric with this machine. Full knowledge of the method used to create the well known Fortuny pleats still remains one of the biggest mysteries in fashion.

                                                                       Fortuny 設計的壓褶機 

                                        https://www.flickr.com/photos/ateliersol/1471761451/in/set-72157602156412189/

 

圖中,我們可以看到Fortuny的設計壓褶機的兩端是許多的鉤環,中間長條狀的是陶瓷管,他把沾濕的絲放置在陶瓷管上並加熱陶瓷管.透過這種烘乾的過程來定型褶子.

Fortuny當初先模仿中世紀製作神職人員法衣的工法來製作Delphos,用指甲在上了漿的絲綢上壓出一個一個褶子.壓完一件Delphos需要大約兩個小時,但退漿所耗的時間更多,完成一件Delphos所需的時間大概8小時左右.1925年之後,他才改用上一篇我們所說的壓褶方式.

 

In the machine diagram, we can see several hooks on the two ends, with ceramic tubes in the middle. He put hand pleated damp silk onto the machine, heating up the ceramic tubes to dry and fix the pleats.

 

He revived a Venetian Renaissance pleating technique used to pleat church vestments, to produce his ‘Delphos’ design. After the fabric was prepared with starch or with egg white glue, Fortuny used his thumbnail to form the pleats, and then twisted them by squeezing with his hands. He then placed the fabric onto the machine he invented to dry and fix the pleats. It took about 2 hours to pleat a ‘Delphos’ dress, but the removal of the glue in order to make the fabric supple and wearable once the pleats are in place, could take up to another 8 hours. In around 1925 he changed to the ‘2 cardboard moulds’ method discussed in my previous blog.

 

起初穿Fortuny衣服的人,在當時算是前衛的藝文人士.因為穿Delphos的時候不能穿其他衣物,不僅是連束腹都不能穿,甚至連胸罩都不能穿,這對當時的女性而言是一種解放.當時的氛圍認為女性身體是美麗的,不該被服裝禁錮;而服裝應該是具有藝術性、有功能的,不該為時尚所服務.因此那個時代抱著懷舊的情懷看著古希臘的服裝最為心中的理想型.

完全展露身軀,這種解放意識、對女體線條的讚美,逐漸獲得認同,也使得Fortuny漸漸得到成功.

 

Women who wore the ‘Delphos’ dress were initially catagorised as ‘avant-garde’. The close-fitting form of the dress meant that underwear could not be worn let alone a corset. This challenged conservative society. Gradually the idea of liberating the body received acceptance, and people started to praise the natural beauty of the human form. Garments should be functional as well as aesthetic and the body should be liberated from the prison of fashion. People looked back to the Ancient Greek ‘chiton’ as an ideal. In these circumstances, Fortuny became popular.

 

                                                                           1910年代穿Delphos的女性

                                              http://lingeriebriefs.com/2013/01/09/the-brilliant-star-of-mariano-fortuny/

 

Fortuny他自己並不認為是時裝設計師,他不像同時代的Paul Poiret, Coco Chanel追求每一季的時尚.他追求的是一個永恆的、絕對的美感,他的創作也專注在布料的質感而非每一季炫目的款式.

 

Unlike other designers of the same period, such as Paul Poiret and Coco Chanel, Fortuny did not regard himself as a fashion designer who created new looks each season. He was in search of an ‘eternal’ absolute beauty.

 

2015年11月,我前往紐約展示innovative pleating技法時,有幸獲得Fashion Institute of Technology 的准許,在館藏人員Ariele Elia以及FIT碩士課程籌備教師Johnathan Kyle的協助下,瀏覽了FIT收藏的Fortuny Delphos 長洋裝.這次有四件,三件標註為1920年代,藕紫色澤特別註明為1928年.

 

In November 2015 I was invited to give a workshop, demonstrating my innovative pleating technique in New York City. I used the opportunity to visit the Museum of Fashion Institute of Technology, and was given an archival viewing of their Fortuny ‘Delphos’ collection. All four of the dresses were registered as from the 1920s; a violet garment was specifically attributed to 1928.

 

 

 

 

 

這些Delphos 的材質都是100%蠶絲,由於褶子相當難永久保存,因此平時在收藏時,都是捲曲放在盒子裡(當初販售時也是捲好放在紙盒裡),除非相當重要的場合或借展,才會攤平打開.當時購買這些Delphos的上流人士在需要清洗時(基本上這些服裝很少清洗!),都是送回Fortuny在威尼斯的工坊秘密處理.

 

The ‘Delphos’ dresses are 100% silk. It therefore becomes problematic to maintain the pleats. Each garment is curled in a box for storage. This is how the garments were originally sold to
 customers as well. (For important exhibitions, the museum will open the garments and place them on mannequins.) When customers wanted to wash these dresses after wearing them, they were sent back to Fortuny’s studio for further processing and nobody really knows how they were cleaned. They were seldom sent to wash.

 

在Mrs Varney T Elliott捐贈的Delphos 腰帶上面有Fortuny的親筆簽名.

 

Fortuny’s signature can be seen on one of the painted belts (from the Mrs Varney T Elliot donation).

 

 

有些人認為在Delphos側邊的玻璃珠能夠為Delphos 帶來一些重量使得下襬能夠維持一個平衡,固定Delphos的造型,不過其實這些玻璃珠相當輕,因此這個功能我還是持一個保留的態度.我認為這些玻璃珠主要還是裝飾的為主.

 

Some experts believe the glass beads added weight to balance the hem of the ‘Delphos’ dress, giving it a more stable shape. However, the beads are light and I’m not convinced that this was their use. At my archival viewing, my impression was that they were decorative.

Delphos的款式有無袖、短袖、等,這一次館方打開了一件杏色的無袖Delphos讓我仔細研究.

 

Fortuny released several variations of the ‘Delphos’ dress, which included long sleeves, short sleeves, and sleeveless looks. The museum showed me a sleeveless apricot garment.

 

 

這是領口的背面,Fortuny刻意留下比一般長的縫份而不做收邊,我研判是因為Delphos相當貼身,如果依照傳統收邊方式,收邊會太厚且將被看透.

 

The neckline seam joins the lining and surface fabric. Fortuny purposely left a raw edge allowance rather than binding the seam in the usual couture way. My understanding is he did this because the ‘Delphos’ is close fitting to the body and he wanted to reveal a clean bodyline. If he had followed the conventional way to finish the seam, it would be too thick and would be seen from the outside.

 

 

 

無論是領口、下擺還是脇邊,都可以看到為了保留褶子的彈性與效果,縫製的方式是全部手縫.

 

No matter whether it is the neckline, hem or side seam, Fortuny used hand stitching rather than machining, in order to keep the flexibility and effect of the pleats.

 

 

在裁片數量上,我們可以看得出來前面為一片,後面由於中心插入了拉鍊,所以分開成兩片.因此每件Delphos的裁片數為三片,而每一片上有將近430~450個褶子.而整件Delphos的寬度約為40公分.

 

The dress is formed of three panels: one front piece, and two in the back, separated by the zip. Each panel contains around 430-450 pleats, and the width of the dress is around 40cm when resting.

 

 

仔細觀察Dolphos 可以看出每個褶子的寬度都大約是3-4公釐,而且每個褶子都相當規則且整齊,相較於我們上次所提的類似皺紋的褶子非常不同.

 

Each pleat is around 3-4 mm wide and is very straight and neat. These pleats are quite different from the wrinkle-like pleats discussed in my previous blog.

 

對Fortuny其他織品、傢俱作品有興趣的朋友可以直接到他的網站

 

Here is the Fortuny website.

http://fortuny.com/

 

下一回我們來看看女性設計師如何運用打褶.

 

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